Research Outputs pageV2

Supergen ORE Hub Outputs

Below are links to documents, presentations and papers that have been published during the current phase of the Supergen ORE Hub. These links will continue to be updated on a regular basis as further outputs are released.

Research Landscape

The Supergen ORE Hub Research Landscape is an interactive web-based landscape tool which will bring together and help communicate UK based offshore wind, wave and tidal energy research. The Research Landscape will enable industry, government and researchers to share opportunities and challenges across challenge themes, and allows researchers to promote ORE projects to the wider community.

Access the Research Landscape and find out more

Publications from Core Research

Publications associated with and aligned with the Supergen ORE Hub.



Reports published by the Supergen ORE Hub.

Work Package Video Updates

Our work is split into 10 areas known as Work Packages. Work packages 1-5 focus on our core research undertaken by the Supergen ORE Hub partner institutions, and Work Packages 6-10 provide the operational, development and funding elements of our work. More information about this can be found on the Work Packages page.

November 2019

Flexible Funding

Our Flexible Funding Awards have been established to allow UK researchers to respond to a number of key offshore renewable energy (ORE) engineering challenges, and to support project areas that complement existing research, fill gaps, or add cross-cutting activities to explore the transfer of research findings between ORE sectors.

Funded projects - April 2019 Funding Call

Chalk, which can behave as a weak rock, can also be de-structured into a soft putty under pile driving or severe cyclic loading. Recent difficulties experienced offshore in chalk have highlighted an urgent need for more accurate and reliable design tools to enable robust and cost-effective foundation design for offshore wind energy developments involving this highly problematic geomaterial. This project will use pre-collected data to develop a novel numerical analysis to capture the behaviour of both individual chalk elements and full-scale offshore piles.


The maintenance and monitoring of Offshore Wind Turbines (OWTs) and Floating Offshore Wind Turbines (FOWTs) present significant challenges. Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) used to inspect them are limited in accessibility and manoeuvrability. This project will build a “Robo Fish” – a biometric Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) capable of continuously and autonomously locating and monitoring structural damage to OWTs or FOWTs. The Robo Fish mimics the movement of an eel, allowing it to greater agility in close proximity to structures and better energy efficiency of movement compared to conventional AUV designs.


Nearly all offshore wind turbines are located in relatively shallow water mounted on fixed bottom support structures. These sites have limited high winds and the turbines are usually highly visible – it therefore makes sense to extend wind turbine systems to deeper water. However, fixed bottom support structures are not feasible in deeper water, so it is necessary to explore floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) systems. FOWT using semi-submersible support structures can experience unacceptably large heave, pitch and roll motions in extreme waves which can affect the performance of the turbine and can cause significant damage. This project will evaluate the potential and effectiveness of applying tuned liquid dampers with anti-heave plates to reduce the motions.


A key problem with predicting tidal turbine lifespan is a lack of data on the unsteady flow conditions at tidal sites. This lack of data causes inaccurate calculations of the lifespan of tidal turbines and drives up the cost of tidal power generation. A prototype probe has been designed which can capture small fluctuations in the flow despite the high hydrostatic pressure when the probe is at depth. This project will develop the probe from a laboratory prototype and prove its operation in marine environments – paving the way for cheap, detailed site surveys, and better predictions of turbine lifespan.

This project will develop a novel methodology to accurately quantify and describe the impact of current on wave measurement buoys. This work enables future measurements to more accurately account for the impact of current, provide a framework for estimating the current from wave buoy measurements, and reprocessing existing buoy datasets to provide historical current estimates. This means that offshore wind, tidal and wave energy technologies can be better designed considering the environmental conditions that they will be exposed to. Furthermore, the opportunity to use common, scaled, characterisation technology in the tank and field will aid the understanding of techniques used to translate site data into the laboratory.


The “standard” approach to modelling wind loads on a floating offshore wind turbine in a hydrodynamic test is via direct physical simulation, using a correctly-scaled working model of the turbine operating in a scaled wind field above the test tank. This poses a number of challenges. Generating a wind field of high controllability and large volume over the tank is difficult and expensive, and scaled model testing can led to manufacturing challenges. An alternative possibility is to utilize “software-in-the-loop” (SIL) in which an active control system drives an actuator in real time to generate system excitation forces in a model test. While it offers a number of benefits, a significant number of challenges remain for this type of testing. This project aims to address the challenges of existing SIL approaches by developing and validating novel approaches to, and practices for, SIL modelling of floating wind turbines in physical model tests.


Renewable energy systems work in variable and uncertain conditions, and this feature would naturally ask for transient overload capabilities of all components involved. Among the main components in an offshore renewable energy system, the power electronic stage is the only one lacking such a capability. This project will research a novel concept to assign, for the first time, a usable overload capability to power semiconductor devices and to use this capability in offshore renewable energy systems, for the purposes of stress reduction and grid support.



As our society becomes ever-more dependent on wind power, it is increasingly important to gain a deeper understanding and more accurate predictability of the wind power availability, the aero-elastic fatigue loads on the wind turbine blades/drive train, and the associated issues of turbine control. The Sandia method proposes to numerically simulate the instantaneous three-dimensional wind field impacting on a wind turbine based solely on information from the frequency spectrum of the incoming wind (i.e. PSD) and its two-point velocity correlations in space across the turbine diameter. This method of prediction is very appealing for industrial applications as numerical predictions agree well with field measurements. This project will investigate whether the Sandia method can reliably be applied to flow with different stability properties, and thereby allow both better initial turbine design and better live prediction of loads and fatigue in service.

Satellite-based measurement has long been identified as having a potential role in enabling cost reduction of marine renewables, but applications have been largely limited to wind resource assessment and wake modelling. This project aims to take satellite data usage in offshore renewable energy (ORE) to the next level by better linking satellite data, models driven by such data, decisions driven by the model outputs, and quantifying this impact on a Levelised Cost of Energy. By mapping linkages between key decision horizons in ORE life cycle to satellite capability will produce a visual map of where satellite data can best impact ORE project decisions. This map will direct the data analysis activities towards the project decisions having the best potential for improvement and quantify any reductions in uncertainty. These improvements will then be captured and monetised in a range of cost models.


The wind energy industry is the fastest growing global consumer of glass fibre-reinforced plastic (GRP) composites. In parallel with this growth is rising GRP waste from end-of-life wind turbine blades (WTB). Unlike other wind turbine components modern lightweight composite WTB are not designed for recyclability. Consequently, developing commercially viable solutions for WTB recycling and reuse is rapidly becoming one of the most important challenges facing global wind industry. This project aims to develop a cost-effective recycling process with commercial competitiveness for large scale recycling of wind turbine blades through reducing the energy demand in the recycling process, improving the quality of reclaimed fibres, and improving their manufacturability.


Early Career Researchers Forum

To coincide with the Supergen ORE Hub Annual Assembly, the Early Career Research Network host their own Annual Forum to share updates on research, hear from invited speakers and share knowledge and experience.

Early Career Researcher Forum - November 2019

Titles in this section link to posters and abstracts on the website:

Wind Energy O&M Research
James Carroll, University of Strathclyde

Wake structure of tidal stream turbine arrays under increasing flow depth
Pablo Ouro, Cardiff University

The Collaborative Computational Project in Wave Structure Interaction (CCP-WSI)
Edward Ransley, University of Plymouth

Real-time wave energy control based on machine learning
Liang Li, University of Strathclyde

Programmable flexible materials for mooring and station keeping
Saeid Lotfian, University of Strathclyde

Plate anchors for offshore floating facilities: Soil-anchor-floating system interactions
Katherine Kwa, University of Southampton

One-fluid formulation for floating offshore renewable energy devices
Liang Yang and Dimitris Stagonas, Cranfield University

Numerical Models of a Floating Hinged Raft Wave Energy Converter
Siya Jin, University of Plymouth

Near wake characteristics comparison of a tidal stream turbine with URANS-AL model
Wei Kang, University of Manchester

Multi-Scale Offshore Wind Farm Modelling
Xiaosheng Chen, University of Oxford

Motion damping of a TLP floating offshore wind turbine using porous materials
Ed Mackay, University of Exeter

Morphing Blades for Load Alleviation of Tidal Turbines
Abel Arredondo-Galeanaa, University of Edinburgh

Modelling Spatial and Temporal Species Dynamics in Response to Changes in Climate and Productivity in the North Sea
Neda Trifonova, University of Aberdeen

Micromechanical modelling of jacked piles in sands
Matteo O. Ciantia, University of Dundee

Machine learning for power system impedance estimation
Kamyab Gibaki, Edinburgh Napier University

Learning-Based Robust Control for Offshore Wave Energy Converters
Shuo Shi, University of Hull

Assessing the economic benefit, technological innovation opportunity and ecological effects of the UK deployment of ORE technology
Charlotte Cochrane, University of Edinburgh

Individual Pitch Actuator Monitoring for Offshore Wind Turbines
Yanhua Liu, University of Hull

Offshore Wind Turbine Multi-physics Modelling
Zi Lin, University of Strathclyde

Future offshore floating wind platform – challenge and opportunity
Yibo Liang, University of Strathclyde

Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Research at the new Swansea University
Marinos Manolesos, Swansea University

Development of novel low-cost methods to understand environmental processes in highly energetic ORE sites
Lilian Lieber, Bryden Centre, Queen’s University Belfast

Developing a Coupled CFD Model for Evaluating Floating Tidal Stream Concepts
Scott Brown, University of Plymouth

Datacube services for the Offshore Renewable Energy industry in the UK
Alberto Rabaneda, University of Hull

Control Design for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines  
Mustafa Abdelrahman, University of Hull

CFD surface effects on flow conditions and tidal stream turbine performance
Matthew Allmark, Cardiff University

Assessing Free Surface Effects in Tidal Turbine Simulations
Pál Schmitt, Queen’s University Belfast

A Risk Assessment Framework for Offshore Wind Turbines
David Wilkie, University College London

Early Career Researcher Forum - January 2019 

Titles in this section link to full abstracts in an abstract book:

Lifetime performance of offshore wind turbine foundations
Christelle Abadie, University of Cambridge

Wave excitation force estimation and robust control approaches for a wave energy converter
Mustafa Abdelrahman, University of Hull

Soil mechanics approach for shaft friction in offshore piles driven in chalk
Fernando Alvarez-Borges, University of Southampton

Field tests to assess the installation and load capacity of screw piles geometries optimised for offshore wind turbine foundations
Anthony Blake, University of Southampton

Shell structure design and assessment of a floating foundation for offshore wind turbines
Shanshan Cheng, University of Plymouth

Investigating the value to the UK economy of ocean energy: scenarios to 2050
Charlotte Cochrane, University of Edinburgh

Influence of different momentum sources on modelling tidal lagoons
Bin Guo, Cardiff University

Assessing the integration of intermittent tidal energy into a renewable energy solution for a remote island community
Jon Hardwick, University of Exeter

Intelligent mooring system for floating wind
Magnus Harrold, University of Exeter

Experimental and numerical studies of the wave structural interaction
Siya Jin, University of Plymouth

Investigating the offshore wind turbine power generation in the U.S. - A case study in a life cycle perspective
Yibo Liang, University of Strathclyde

In pursuit of turbulence: anthropogenic wake generates a predictable foraging opportunity for top predators
Lilian Lieber, Queen’s University Belfast

Fault-tolerant individual pitch control for offshore wind turbines
Yanhua Liu, University of Hull

Impact of sediment transport processes over offshore windfarm sites
Ramon Lopez Jimenez, University of Hull

The use of porous materials for motion damping of floating offshore wind turbines
Ed Mackay, University of Exeter

Investigating constructive interference for multi-rotor tidal turbine systems
James McNaughton, University of Oxford

Suitability of wave loading models for OWT monopiles in very harsh seas
Agota Mockute, University of Hull

Efficient prediction of unsteady loading of turbine blades in turbulence
Hannah Mullings, The University of Manchester

Towards efficient large-eddy simulation of tidal turbine arrays: approaches to balance the computational expense
Pablo Ouro, Cardiff University

Reliability Based Design Optimization – An Application to Mooring Systems
Ajit Pillai, University of Exeter

The development of a satellite-enabled tool for offshore wind optimisation
Alberto Rabaneda, University of Hull

Intelligent Optimisation Methods
Alma Rahat, University of Plymouth

Wave-structure-interaction using CFD
Edward Ransley, The University of Plymouth

A (r)Evolutionary approach for the optimisation of offshore renewables O&M
Giovanni Rinaldi, University of Exeter

Capacity of driven piles in chalk (ALPACA Project)
Fabian Schranz, University of Oxford

Machine Learning in Wave Forecasting
Evdokia Tapoglou, University of Hull

Ecosystem Models to Understand the Effect of Offshore Renewables on the Marine System
Neda Trifonova, University of Aberdeen

Multi-scale offshore wind farm wake interactions
Chris Vogel, University of Oxford

A novel system for monitoring biofouling and testing antifouling and anticorrosion coatings in offshore renewable energy habitats
Andrew Want, Heriot-Watt University

Multi-platform studies of the MeyGen tidal energy site – using UAVs to measure animal distributions and hydrodynamic features
Benjamin Williamson, University of the Highlands and Islands

Numerical study of turbulent multiphase flows
Zhihua Xie, Cardiff University

Tidal turbines: Measuring, Modelling and Mitigating Unsteady Flow
Anna Young, University of Cambridge

Investigating wind turbine dynamic transient loads using contactless shaft torque measurements
Donatella Zappalá, Durham University

Coast/breakwater-integrated OWC: a theoretical model
Siming Zheng, University of Plymouth

Annual Assembly

The Annual Assembly connects academia, industry, policy and public stakeholders to debate and explore the latest challenges, opportunities and research within offshore wind, wave and tidal energy.

Annual Assembly - November 2019


Annual Assembly - January 2019

Workshops, events and outreach

The Supergen ORE Hub engages with various stakeholders through the use of varied and high-impact engagement and outreach activities. These activities have raised the profile of the Hub and have helped to communicate and disseminate ORE research.

The Supergen ORE Hub took part in the University of Plymouth Science and Technology showcase in January 2020. The showcase was aimed at getting younger children interested in Engineering, Biological Sciences and Life Sciences. The Supergen ORE Hub team exhibited the demo wave tank with offshore renewable energy (ORE) devices, and spoke to the local school and college pupils about ORE. More information about the Science and Technology Showcase can be found on the University of Plymouth website.

In October 2019, Co-Directors from the Supergen ORE Hub, and other invited UK academics within ORE, attended a workshop in Boston USA organised between the UK Foreign Commonwealth Office, NYSERDA (New York State Energy Research and Development Authority) and Supergen ORE Hub Co-Directors, to meet with US academics to explore research collaboration opportunities between the UK and US around NYSERDAs ambitious offshore wind aspirations, as set out in its Offshore Wind Master Plan.


The Supergen ORE Hub joined with the Partnership for Research in Marine Renewable Energy (PRIMaRE) to exhibit at EWTEC in Naples. Supergen ORE Hub Co-Directors were authors on 9 core research paper presentations, as well as delivering a side event workshop on wave/structure interaction. A poster presentation by the University of Plymouth’s Supergen ORE Hub PhD student was also displayed. The audience was primarily academic with some representatives from industry and marine/energy networks.

A team from the Supergen ORE Hub took a marquee stand in the ’Einstein’s Garden’ area of the Green Man Festival. The music festival is targeted at families and has several educational areas to engage festival goers. The Supergen ORE stand included hands on activities and demonstrations on the principles of offshore renewable energy, and had children and adults alike creating turbines and using the demonstrator wave tank to engage and inspire. Over the course of 4 days over 1000 members of the public engaged with the team and joined in different activities. Images from the outreach event can be found on the webpage

Images from the outreach event can be found on the webpage


A workshop for understanding the potential of hydrogen for transforming the offshore energy system took place on 26 June at the 2019 Global Offshore Wind conference. Numerous drivers are behind the transformation of the offshore energy system, with oil and gas decommissioning, offshore wind expanding rapidly and shipping and ports transforming operations to reduce emissions.

Presentations from the workshop can found on the website


The Supergen ORE Hub exhibited at International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE) 2019 in Glasgow. Predominantly an academic audience, the exhibition stand attracted discussions with over 100 academics over the course of 3 days regarding the remit of the Hub, how to register for the ECR network and further engagement opportunities. In addition, 13 core research presentations were delivered by Supergen ORE Hub Co-Directors.


Representatives from each of the four Supergen Hubs (Offshore Renewable Energy, Solar, Bioenergy, and Energy Networks) presented at the official launch of phase 4 of the Supergen programme with EPSRC on 17th June in Portcullis House, Westminster. The event was attended by MPs and Houses of Lords representatives, to hear about the Supergen programme investment and the ambitions and goals of each the Hubs over the next 3-4 years. The focus of the event was to engage with policy makers around the Supergen programme and be seen as a valuable resource of information for MPs looking to understand more within ORE and respective Supergen areas of research.


The Supergen ORE Hub exhibited at All Energy 2019, with a target audience of engaging industry and academic stakeholders. Over the two-day exhibition the stand was visited over 200 times by delegates wishing to learn more about the Supergen ORE Hub and its activities. A workshop was also held during the exhibition for ECRs on applying for Research Fellowships.


A joint workshop was held in London with the OWIH and Supergen ORE Hub, to map the OWIH Innovation Priorities against the Research Challenges developed by the Supergen ORE Hub to ensure OWIH priories are linked to our Research Landscape.